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Making and Using Handtools


 

Lathe and Planer Tools by Machinery's Reference Series, 1912

In discussing cutting tools for the planer and lathe, planer tools will first come under our notice as being the simplest and requiring the least skill in setting.

Every mechanic has doubtless observed that if the chip be unwound from the spiral shape it assumes in leaving the tool, and projected in a straight line, it is shorter than the surface from which it came. This is due mainly to the compression of the metal in the direction of the cut, and the possibilities of saving power and strain upon the machine by giving proper cutting angles to the tools and reducing this compression to a minimum is thus realized.

Proper Rake on Lathe and Planer Tools of the work, and having no side rake either, it simply does not cut, but shoves or crowds the metal forward, producing a chip made up of little splints. It cannot exert any force tending to lift or curl the chip.

The tool is wholly wrong; nor would it materially improve it to grind it like the tool shown in the little sketch at the right, which goes to the other extreme, and would spring into the work. A tool must first of all be heavy enough at the back or heel to resist the horizontal cutting force, and consequently should have very little clearance.

The 7 degrees clearance shown in the lathe tool in the upper view, Fig. 2, is too much for a planer tool, while the 3 degrees of the lower sketch is as small as can be used safely. Theoretically if the point leads by only a thousandth or two it will perform its function.

There should be very little top rake on account of its tendency to make the tool dig into the cut; but this can be compensated for by giving considerable side rake..


 

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