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Making and Using Handtools

  Tool making: a practical treatise... by Edward R. Markham, 1919    


The history of the development of the tool-making art is, of course, the history of the mechanical development of the country. The hand working tools came first and then with the invention of each successive machine came the creation of tools to go with it.

The gradual evolution of machine methods brought an increase in the required accuracy of workmanship and this in turn demanded more precise methods and greater skill on the part of the tool maker.

Today, therefore, the large body of so-called "tool makers" represents the most skilled, the most inventive, and the most intelligent of the army of mechanics which forms the back bone of our immense mechanical industries.

Many phases of this mechanical development have increased the importance of the tool maker - the introduction of high-speed steels, demanding greater skill in construction of the tools because of the greater demands upon them; the variation of hardening and tempering methods owing to the variety of steels used; and particularly the use of "production" methods which necessitates the design and manufacture of complicated tools, jigs, and fixtures for the rapid duplication of any given machine.

The design of efficient and complete sets of such tools requires highly developed knowledge of machine methods, and a thorough understanding of the machines for which the tools are designed.

The author of this work has had years of experience not only in teaching the subject but in the practical side as well, and is able to give the reader a multitude of helpful suggestions for successfully carrying out the mechanical operations required.


 It is the hope of the publishers that this work will be found a worthy contribution to our standard technical literature.


  • Fundamental requirements for successful work

  • Necessary tools

  • Tool materials and their treatment

  • Cast iron

  • Wrought iron

  • Machine steel

  • Converted steel

  • Crucible steel and its preparation

  • Use of pyrometers

  • Hardening and tempering crucible steel

  • Alloy steels

  • Modern high-speed steels


D. R. Barton

L. & I. J. White


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